8 Sep

object oriented programing

In the world of software development, the object-orientated Programming (OOP) is a fundamental approach that significantly influences the way in which applications are developed and structured. This paradigm is based on several key concepts, including classes, objects, inheritance, polymorphism and encapsulation. These elements help to ensure that software is not only functional, but also modular, reusable and easier to understand.

The class: The foundation of OOP

A class can be thought of as a blueprint that provides the structure for objects. It defines both attributes (also known as data fields) and methods (functions or procedures) that determine the properties and behaviour of the objects. Classes therefore serve as a template from which individual objects are instantiated.

Objects Instances of classes

An object is a concrete manifestation of a class. It has the attributes and methods defined in the class, but has its own unique state defined by the values of its attributes. For example, the Car class could define attributes such as colour, brand and speed. A specific object of this class could then be a red Toyota car that can drive 100 km/h.

Inheritance: Reuse and extend

Inheritance allows objects to inherit properties and methods from other objects. This means that classes can have a hierarchical relationship with each other. For example, an electric car could inherit from the more general class Car and have additional attributes or methods that are specific to electric cars.

Polymorphism: Flexibility in methods

Polymorphism allows objects to call methods that have the same name but are implemented differently in different classes. For example, the start() method could work differently for a car than for an electric car, depending on how it is defined in the respective classes.

Encapsulation: protection and abstraction

The principle of encapsulation hides the internal status details of an object and provides a public interface for interaction with the object. This protects the data within the object and contributes significantly to the maintainability and expandability of the software.


Object-oriented programming offers a structured approach to software development based on the idea that objects model the world around us. Through the use of classes, inheritance, polymorphism and encapsulation, OOP enables developers to create complex Software systems that are both robust and flexible. These concepts not only help with the structuring and organisation of code, but also promote the reuse of code, which makes development more efficient and easier to maintain.


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